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Linux Terminal basics

One of the main advantages of Linux is being able to control complete operating system in terminal mode. Today we will learn some basic commands.

  Author: podtalje | Version: Ubuntu 12.04 | 15th October 2012 |  

Most of the things in Linux can be done through graphical user interface. Nevertheless knowledge of working directly in terminal mode can sometimes be very useful.

To mange Linux through shell we must first start terminal.

To start Terminal in Ubuntu Linux, press Windows key on keyboard and type terminal.


Terminal window will now open.

Default opened location will be home folder of our account.

Home directories of user account are located in directory /home/name_of_user_account


Linux is using similar tree structure of folders as Windows system.

One of the main differences is that partitions on disk are not labeled with letters. Instead the top location (root folder) is just labeled as character /


Most basic command is ls which will show list of files in current folder.

Type ls and press Enter.

Be careful because Linux operating system is case sensitive, so always write commands in lower case.

Many times you will also need to use command ls -al

a parameter means that hidden files will also be shown and l parameter will show more detailed list of files.


You can move between folders with command cd.

cd name_of_folder

When using ls, folders are usually blue color.


New folders are created with command mkdir, where we append name of the folder that we want to create.

mkdir name_of_folder

Folders can be deleted with command:
rmdir ime_mape


If we just want to check our current folder, we can use command  pwd.


This was just a brief introduction to terminal mode in Linux. If you have any additional questions just ask them on forum.

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TheDude, 15th Oct 2012, 2:23 AM
Can you please tell me how to find a text in a file?

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podtalje, 15th Oct 2012, 1:33 PM
Usually you use command grep

grep search_string *

If you want to also search in subfolders just append -R
grep search_string * -R
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